A Brief Overview: Breaking of Islamic Tradition of Education in Malaya

MEHMET ÖZAY
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Öz


Özet
Bu makalede, Malaya’da Müslüman Malay toplumunda önemli bir eğitim kurumu olarak işlev
gören ve Kur’an Okulları veya Kur’an Sınıfları adıyla bilinen geleneksel dini eğitim kurumları ile
İngiliz sömürge yöneticilerinin inisitayif ile hayata geçirilen Malay Okulları arasındaki ilişki ele
alınmaktadır. 19. yüzyıl ilk yarısından itibaren gerek Thomas Stamford Raffles, Frank Swettenham
ve Richard J. Wilkinson gibi yöneticilerin bireysel inisiyatifleri, gerekse sömürge yönetiminin
eğitim politikası vasıtasıyla hayata geçirilen Malay Okulları, geleneksel eğitim kurumlarının dönüşümünü
hedeflemesi dolayısıyla Malay toplumu genelinde dikkat çekici sosyo-kültürel değişimlerin
hazırlayıcısı olduğu görülür. Bir sosyal mühendislik çabası olarak da değerlendirilebilecek olan
geleneksel Malay eğitim sistemi çeşitli boyutları ile ele alınmaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Kur’an okulları/sınıfları, Malay dili, Thomas Stamford Raffles.
Abstract
This article attempts to explore the relationship between Qur’an schools or classes and vernacular
Malay schools, as also the metamorphosis of the native educational system into a modern rational
institution. This transformation process initially commenced as a personal initiative of
some British administrators such as Thomas Stamford Raffles and R. J. Wilkinson, and eventually
led to an overhaul of the existing educational system into an organized secular format by the authorities
of the British colonial administration around the second part of the 19th century.
The rational basis of the establishment of Qur’an schools or classes was a direct impact of being a
Muslim community. After accepting Islam as the ‘national religion’, Malays initially adopted the
Arabic alphabet as their writing script in a common cultural and religious process experienced in
almost all Islamic communities around the world. Since Islam is regarded as the source for acquiring
practical knowledge in daily community life, Malays established Qur’an schools in order to
educate their future generations. In the process, the implementation of this system of education
created its own tradition and was internalised within the community. However, the arrival of the
British as colonialists altered the scenario somewhat. They were regarded as catalysts in the
transformation of Malay society, spearheading their thrust first by making inroads into the existing
system of education.


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