Influence of Different Vehicles on the pH and Surface Tension of Calcium Hydroxide Pastes

2.148 801


The aim of this study was in vitro evaluation and comparison of
pH levels and surface tension of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]
paste prepared with different vehicles such as distilled water,
citanest, glycerin, and procaine.
Forty extracted human maxillary incisors were used for pH
analysis in the study. Teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups as
follows: Group I: Ca(OH)2 and distilled water paste; Group II:
Ca(OH)2 and glycerin paste; Group III: Ca(OH)2 and citanest paste
and Group IV: Ca(OH)2 and procaine paste. In all groups, pH
measurements were performed at the 15th, 30th and 45th minutes;
2nd, 24th and 48th hours, and 7th and 14th days.
The powder of Ca(OH)2 and liquids were mixed to the weight ratio
3:2 (3 ml liquid and 2 g powder) for the surface tension
measurements. The surface tension of Ca(OH)2 mixtures was
measured using a tensiometer device. All measurements were
repeated five times for each sample and by arithmetic means were
calculated. The data were recorded and statistical analysis was
performed with a significance level set at p<0.05.
The combination of Ca(OH)2 with procaine resulted in significantly
higher pH values compared to the other pastes. Distilled water
mixed with Ca(OH)2 represented the highest surface tension
values (77,5 dynes/cm). The mixture of procaine or citanest with
Ca(OH)2 powder presented the lowest surface tension values of all
the groups (61,6 and 56,1 respectively).
Considering the pH values obtained in this study, procaine might
be used as a vehicle for Ca(OH)2 powder. Citanest, with the lowest surface tension values, seems to be the most favorable vehicle for



Calcium hydroxide, citanest, pH, procaine, surface tension

Full Text:



Byström A. Sundqvist G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the efficacy of mechanical root canal instrumentation in endodontic therapy: Scand J Dent Res 1981;89:321-328.

Siqueira JF Jr. Goncalves RB: Antibacterial activities of root canal sealers against selected anaerobic bacteria. J Endod 1996;22:89-90.

Poorni S. Miglani R. Srinivasan MR. Indira R: Comparative evaluation of the surface tension and pH of calcium hydroxide mixed with five different vehicles: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:17-20.

Solak H. Oztan MD: The pH changes of four different calcium hydroxide mixtures used for intracanal medication. J Oral Rehabil 2003;30:436-439.

Robert GH. Liewehr FR. Buxton TB. McPherson JC 3rd: Apical diffusion of calcium hydroxide in an in vitro model. J Endod 2005;31:57-60.

Rivera E. Williams K: Placement of calcium hydroxide in simulated canals: comparison of glycerin versus water. J Endod 1994;20:445-448.

Tamburic SD. Vuleta GM. Ognjanovic JM: In vitro release of calcium and hydroxyl ions from two types of calcium hydroxide preparations. Int Endod J 1993;26:125-130.

Byström A. Claesson R. Sundqvist G: The antibacterial effect of camphorated paramonochlorophenol, camphorated phenol and calcium hydroxide in the treatment of infected root canals. Dent Traumatol 1985;1:170-175.

Pacioss MG. Casa ML. Bulacio MA. Lópezs ME: Influence of different vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide pastes. J Oral Sci 2004;46:107-111.

Ozcelik B. Tasman F. Ogan C: A comparison of the surface tension of calcium hydroxide mixed with different vehicles. J Endod 2000;26:500-502.

Orstavik D. Harty’s Endodontics in Clinical Practice. In: Pitt Ford TR, editor, Intracanal medication. 4th ed. Oxford, UK: Wright; 1997. p.106-122.

Siqueira JF Jr. Lopes HP: Mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide: a critical review. Int Endod J 1999;32:361-369.

Dosch M. Atlas of Neural Therapy With Local Anesthetics. Procaine (Novacaine) “King of Medicine”. 3th ed. New York, USA: Thieme 2012.

Duarte MA. Demarchi AC. Giaxa MH. Kuga MC. Fraga SC. de Souza LC: Evaluation of pH and calcium ion release of three root canal sealers. J Endod. 2000 Jul;26:389-390.

Trope M. Moshonov J. Nissan R. Buxt P. Yesilsoy C: Short vs. Long-term calcium hydroxide treatment of established inflammatory root resorption in replanted dog teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1995;11:124-128.

Tronstad L. Andreasen JO. Hasselgren G. Kristerson L. Riis I: pH changes in dental tissues after root canal filling with calcium hydroxide. J Endod 1981;7:17-21.

Pacios MG. de la Casa ML. de los Angeles Bulacio M. Lópes ME: Calcium hydroxide’s association with different vehicles: in vitro action on some dentinal components. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96:96-101.

Simon ST. Bhat KS. Francis L: Effect of four vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide and the release of calcium ion. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995;80:459- 464.

Azabal-Arroyo M. Menasalvas-Ruiz G. Martín-Alonso J. Arroquia JJ. Vega-del Barrio JM: Loss of hydroxyl ions from gutta-percha points with calcium hydroxide in their composition: an in vivo study. J Endod 2002;28:697-698.

Calt S. Serper A. Ozcelik B. Dalat MD: pH changes and calcium ion diffusion from calcium hydroxide dressing materials through root dentin. J Endod 1999;25:329-331.

Estrela C. Sydney GB. Pesce HF. Felippe Jşnior O: Dentinal diffusion of hydroxyl ions of various calcium hydroxide pastes. Braz Dent J 1995;6:5-9.

de Andrade Ferreira FB. Silva e Souza Pde A. do Vale MS. de Moraes IG, Granjeiro JM: Evaluation of pH levels and calcium ion release in various calcium hydroxide endodontic dressings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;97:388-392.

Zmener O. Pameijer CH. Banegas G: An in vitro study of the pH of three calcium hydroxide dressing materials. Dent Traumatol 2007;23:21-25.